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-1 (Yacht)/i-1



Televisions, video

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MS-61 - Flight Recorder


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V/A - Meters

First transistors USSR


My works

Tube stereo cassette player

Tube Microcassette recorder

Tube "Electron 52D"






RussianAudio recorders Televisions, video Tube radios NEW Other rarities My works


First transistors USSR




Used Google translator

     The first serial transistors in the Soviet Union, not including experienced 1 - 8 (1953), were point contact p-n-p germanium transistors 1 and 2 (1954 - 1960). Length of the body without pins 12 mm, diameter 6.5 mm. Lead Length 4 mm. Weight 2 grams. Given that the findings are very short, the weight of the transistors is pretty big. In comparison, for example transistors 40 with long pin weigh only 1.5 grams. Great weight 1 and 2 due to their design features. One transistor 2 I made out to study the structure. After removing the outer body revealed that it is a brass cylinder having a diameter of 6 mm, and inside which is a germanium crystal. In the middle of the cylinder, there are two technological hole diameter of 2.5 mm. The thickness of the cylinder wall in the opening - 0.4 mm. The outer casing is made of an alloy similar to nickel.
     More information about vintage Soviet transistors can be found here.

     1, 8 - KS1, KS8
     1, 2 - S1, S2

- MP40

Photos can be enlarged


Through the hole in the brass body is seen germanium crystal with contact wires


The photo shows that the outer casing provides only tightness and strength of the structure creates a second - brass body, inside which is a germanium crystal


Construction transistors C1 and C2

Transistors packed in paper envelopes on 1 piece


American counterpart transistors C1 and C2 is a point contact p-n-p transistor 2N25 of "Western Electric Company Inc.; New York". They began to produce in 1953, a year before the Soviet counterparts. Structurally, they are similar, but 2N25 instead of a metal casing that covers the hole in the hull, used a plastic ring. Case dimensions without pins 12 x 5.5 mm. Weight 1 g. Available I have instances marking the date of manufacture 8-53 and 10-53. Information on many of the old transistors can be found at


Should the protective ring can be seen that the filler is probably the entire interior of the housing



1, 2 (P1, P2) - the first domestic p-n-p germanium junction transistors (1955 - 1960).
Actual dimensions 19 x 9 mm (passport 20 x 10 mm). Lead Length 30 mm. Weight
2.5 g


Transistors packed in paper envelopes on 1 piece



3 (P3) - the first Soviet germanium planar transistor p-n-p high power (1955 - 1960). Dimensions: 24 x 27 mm. Core diameter 25 mm. Weight 8 grams



4 (P4BE) - The first Soviet powerful planar germanium transistor p-n-p type. Power of 10 watts. Probably produced since 1957. Dimensions 30 x 9 mm without pins. Weight 14 grams.



 411A  (P411A) - germanium diffusion microwave transistor p-n-p type (Development, 1959). My attention it has attracted an unusual hull design



309 (P309) - silicon n-p-n transistors early 60's. Produced until recently, but in other cases. Initially the body has dimensions - height 11 mm - diameter 10mm with a rim diameter of 13 mm. Weight 2 g The photo shows the transistors 309 (P309) , made in 1964 and 1985



16 (P16) p-n-p germanium junction transistors. Produced since 1959. One of my existing instances I opened for the study design



Below you can see the construction of some Soviet and foreign transistors.

Soviet germanium p-n-p transistor 310 (GT310B). Diameter 3 mm.



Soviet germanium p-n-p transistor 402 (GT402A)



The germanium p-n-p transistor 2SB257 (60 years)



The germanium p-n-p transistor OC38 (50 years)



The germanium p-n-p transistor OC71A. Presumably produced since 1954. An interesting design as a glass bulb filled with a protective gel.


In the magazine "Radio & TV News" in January 1959, I found these interesting pictures that explain the device of the first transistors of different types

Areas of the first transistor technology from the magazine "Radio & TV News" for August 1956

Also of interest are the old copper oxide semiconductor diodes
7-1a type produced in the USSR. They were also called copper oxide rectifiers or valves. The diodes in the photo below made in 1961


In the photo below one of the first mass-produced Soviet germanium diodes - point -7 (DG-C7) and planar -21, -24, -27 (DG-C21, DG-C24, DG-C27). Producing them started in the mid 50s.


Construction diode type -21 - -27 (DG-C21 - DG-C27)

1 - Contacts - tinned copper
2 - Glass insulators
3 - Copper body
4 - Contact - tinned copper
5 - Indium anode
6 - Crystal germanium
7 - Crystal holder - nickel or kovar
8 - Solder




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